Tofu is one of the oldest foods and it has been a hot topic of discussion by food critics in the recent times.
Many clamors about its health benefits and versatility but some others consider it as genetically modified poisonous diet.
Whatever may be the discussion, tofu has been in use for 2,000 years; and it is a very popularly used food component in many Asian cuisines.
There is a growing interest in tofu all over the world although many still doubt whether this food is healthy enough to be part of the daily diet.
This article elucidates the making process, nutrition, health benefits and side effects of this popular food.
What is Tofu?
Tofu is a processed soybean food component eaten by people of China, Thailand, Japan and other East Asian and Southeast Asian countries.
A staple ingredient in Thai and Chinese cookery, there are several ways to cook this food by changing its texture from smooth and soft to crisp and crunchy.
Nigari, a mineral rich by-product of the salt making process, is a versatile pantry staple. It is basically the mineral-rich coagulant leftover after the salt is extracted from sea water.
The minerals like Magnesium Chloride or Calcium Sulfate found in coagulants help to solidify the processed soy milk into tofu.
How To Make Tofu?
Tofu, or bean curd, is a popular food derived from soya.
If you are wondering how to make tofu, it involves only a few steps very similar to making the traditional dairy cheese.
The soy cheese is made by curdling the fresh soya milk, pressing it into a solid block and then cooling it to solidify.
Ingredients For Making Tofu:
The ingredients that go into the making of Soya-Cheese are soy milk and any one of the commonly used coagulants like Nigari (Magnesium Chloride) or Terra Alba (Calcium Sulfate). Lemon juice could also be used as a coagulant.
For making soybean curd at home the following proportion of ingredients could be used:
- Soy Milk – 8 cups /64 Oz
- Coagulant – 2 tsp Terra Alba OR 1 tsp Nigari Flakes OR 1/2 tsp. Liquid Nigari
Step-By-Step Guide To ‘How To Prepare Tofu’:
- Boil fresh soy milk for 5 minutes (boiling is not required if you are using the pasteurized and sterilized soy milk)
- Coagulant should be dissolved into a cup of warm water and add this to the soy milk and gently stir till the mixture is properly blended.
- After stirring, leave this mixture untouched for 30 minutes or till the small lumps of curd are fully separated from the amber colored liquid.
- Transfer the curds into proper sieve container lined with cheesecloth and tightly fold the cheesecloth over the lumps of curd.
- Press the curd bundled up in the cheesecloth to drain out the water; place a heavy-weight object over the bundle or mold for 30 minutes for fully draining out the liquid and hardening the dry curd.
- The tofu is ready by now. You can use it immediately for cooking or keep it under refrigeration for further solidifying and preservation.
Tofu Nutrition, Calories, And Protein
The soy cheese contains good quality protein that includes 8 essential amino acids. The other major contents in soy curd are fats, vitamins, minerals and carbs.
Tofu is an excellent source of calcium and a very good source of manganese, copper, selenium, protein, and phosphorus. In addition, tofu is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, iron, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B1.
Tofu Calories: Wondering how many calories are in Tofu, Firm? Every 100gm of tofu contains 76 calories or 41 calories per ounce. Soy cheese is a medium calorie food and moderate eating of any soy product are not a problem for people on low-calorie diets.
Tofu Protein: It is a ‘complete protein’ food though tofu protein not considered as high-quality as animal sources. It has 8 out of 9 essential amino acids that must be included in “complete protein” category foods.
Every 100 grams of tofu contains 8 grams of protein.
All soy products contain a high amount of protein and less amount of calories; this makes all soy foods healthy.
100 grams of Tofu Serving contains:
- Carbs: 2 grams.
- Fiber: 1 gram.
- Fat: 4 grams.
- Manganese: 31% of the RDI.
- Copper: 11% of the RDI.
- Magnesium: 9% of the RDI.
- Calcium: 20% of the RDI.
- Iron: 9% of the RDI.
- Selenium: 14% of the RDI.
- Phosphorus: 12% of the RDI.
- Zinc: 6% of the RDI.
- Vitamin A: 2% of RDI
- Vitamin B-6: 5% RDI
Note: Calcium amount will be higher in tofu made of Terra Alba coagulant and similarly, magnesium will be higher if Nigari is used.
Is Tofu Healthy? |The Benefits Of Bean Curd
Tofu is high in protein and contains many healthy nutrients.
Eating tofu may protect against a variety of poor health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and even certain cancers.
Here are a few of the tofu benefits:
Benefits Of Isoflavones: It a natural plant compound present in soybeans which function as a phytoestrogen that helps to activate estrogen receptors in the body.
According to a 2008 study published in European Heart Journal, the high-risk stroke patients who took 80 mg of isoflavones per day for 12 weeks had improved blood flow by 68%.
In another research report published in The American Journal Of Clinical Research, it is noted that taking 50 grams of soy protein per day is good for improving blood cholesterol levels and reduces the risk of heart diseases by 10% or more.
According to a 2004 study published in Journal Of Women’s Health, a group of healthy post-menopausal women who took 100mg soy isoflavones per day reduced insulin levels by 23% and sugar levels by 15%.
Another study report in Diabetes Journal showed that taking isoflavones regularly helps in improving insulin sensitivity and blood cholesterol, which reduced the risks of diabetes and heart diseases.
Reduces Some Cancer Risks: There are several verified pieces of evidence from various studies that indicated the effects of tofu on the colon, breast, and prostate cancer reduction.
A 2009 study by Lin Yan1 and Edward L Spitznagel for American Society For Nutrition, observed that 633,476 participants linked higher soy intake to a 7% lower risk of cancer of the digestive system.
Beneficial For Weight Loss: Studies have reported that regular intake of soy isoflavones results in weight loss.
Enhanced Brain Function: Soy isoflavones is found to have great influence on enhancing the memory and brain function.
Improves Bone Health: Evidence from research suggest that 80 mg of soy isoflavones are taken daily can reduce bone decay especially for the woman in the post-menopause period.
Are There Any Side Effects Of Tofu?
In spite of divided opinion on the goodness of tofu, there is NO evidence that indicates any serious harm it can inflict on health.
However, no food is good for health if eaten in an excess amount. It is good to limit the intake of bean curd to a moderate amount.
Some of the possible ill effects of soy products on health are:
- The oxalates in tofu can aggravate the kidney or gallbladder stones issue.
- Woman with estrogen-sensitive breast tumors should limit the intake of tofu as this soy food has weak hormonal effects.
- The goitrogen content in tofu is bad for women suffering from Thyroid issues.
- Soy isoflavones not good for infants as it may disrupt the development of reproductive organs.
- According to some animal studies, soy products could have adverse effects on fertility health.
The anti-nutrients in tofu may not be healthy for some people with weak metabolism and digestive function. These anti-nutrients may lead to:
- Inhibition Trypsin, an enzyme that is required for the digestion of protein
- Lectins protein in soy can cause bloating and nausea if eaten raw
- Phytates present in soy reduces the absorption of minerals.
However, most of these antinutrients in soy can be made ineffective by soaking, cooking or through fermentation.
Sprouting soybeans before making tofu can also help in eliminating most of phytates and trypsin inhibitors; on a positive side, it increases the protein content.
Tips On Choosing Healthy Tofu
Either you can make tofu at home or purchase tofu which comes in various forms like freeze-dried, jarred or canned, or dehydrated.
When you are buying the soy cheese, make sure to read the ingredients label and find that only soybeans, water, and permitted coagulants are used in it.
It is important to rinse the tofu blocks before you use it in your food.
Tofu must be stored in the refrigerator; the open blocks or leftover pieces of soy cheese must be dipped in water and stored.
It is not advisable to use packaged tofu that is more than 5 months old.
If you can make the fresh tofu at home, there is nothing better than that.